Scene 1 — Producing homeland security A theory has only the alternative of being right or wrong.
Alexander In many cases, addiction theorists have now progressed beyond stereotyped disease conceptions of alcoholism or the idea that narcotics are inherently addictive to anyone who uses them. Yet this new theoretical synthesis is less than meets the eye: It mainly recycles discredited notions while including piecemeal modifications that make the theories marginally more realistic in their descriptions of addictive behavior.
These theories are described and evaluated in this chapter as they apply to all kinds of addictions. They are organized into sections on genetic theories inherited mechanisms that cause or predispose people to be addictedmetabolic theories biological, cellular adaptation to chronic exposure to drugsconditioning theories built on the idea of the cumulative reinforcement from drugs or other activitiesand adaptation theories those exploring the social and psychological functions performed by drug effects.
While most addiction theorizing has been too unidimensional and mechanistic to begin to account for addictive behavior, adaptation theories have typically had a different limitation. In this way drugs are seen as a way to cope, however dysfunctionally, with personal and social needs and changing situational demands.
Yet these adaptation models, while pointing in the right direction, fail because they do not directly explain the pharmacological role the substance plays in addiction. At the same time their purview is not ambitious enough not nearly so ambitious as that of some biological and conditioning models to incorporate nonnarcotic or nondrug involvements.
They also miss the opportunity, readily available at the social-psychological level of analysis, to integrate individual and cultural experiences.
This addictive inheritance has been most studied in the case of alcoholism. Studies endeavoring to separate genetic from environmental factors, such as those in which adopted-away offspring of alcoholics were compared to adopted children with nonalcoholic biological parents, have claimed a three to four times greater alcoholism rate for those whose biologic parents were alcoholic Goodwin et al.
Vaillant l approvingly cited the Goodwin et al. Since these subjects were reared by their natural families, however, this finding does not distinguish effects of alcoholic environment from inherited dispositions.
Vaillant did find that subjects with alcoholic relatives they did not live with were twice as likely to become alcoholic as subjects who had no alcoholic relatives at all.
The chief of these is ethnicity: Irish Americans in this Boston sample were seven times as likely to be alcohol dependent as were those of Mediterranean descent. Controlling for such large ethnicity effects would surely reduce the 2 to 1 ratio for subjects with alcoholic relatives compared to those without in alcoholism substantially even as other potential environmental factors that lead to alcoholism besides ethnicity would still remain to be controlled for.
Vaillant reported two other tests of genetic causality in his sample. Proposing genetic mechanisms in alcoholism on the basis of concordance rates does not provide a model of addiction. What are these mechanisms through which alcoholism is inherited and translated into alcoholic behavior?
Even the most severely alcoholic individuals "clearly demonstrate positive sources of control over drinking behavior" so that "extreme drunkenness cannot be accounted for on the basis of some internally located inability to stop" Heather and Robertson Intriguingly, controlled-drinking theorists like Heather and Robertson propose exceptions to their own analyses: Perhaps "some problem drinkers are born with a physiological abnormality, either genetically transmitted or as a result of intrauterine factors, which makes them react abnormally to alcohol from their first experience of it" Heather and Robertson While it is certainly a fascinating possibility, no research of any type supports this suggestion.
Vaillant found that self-reports by AA members that they immediately succumbed to alcoholism the first time they drank were false and that severe drinking problems developed over periods of years and decades.
The exceptions to this generalization were psychopaths whose drinking problems were components of overall abnormal lifestyles and behavior patterns from an early age.
However, these kinds of alcoholics showed a greater tendency to outgrow alcoholism by moderating their drinking Goodwin et al. Prospective studies of those from alcoholic families also have failed to reveal early alcoholic drinking Knop et al.
Findings like these have led genetic theorists and researchers instead to propose that the inherited vulnerability to alcoholism takes the form of some probabilistically greater risk of developing drinking problems.
The emphasis is instead on such biological abnormalities as the inability to discriminate blood alcohol level BALwhich leads alcoholics to show less effect from drinking and to drink more without sensing their condition Goodwin ; Schuckit Alternately, Schuckit proposed that alcoholics inherit a different style of metabolizing alcohol, such as producing higher levels of acetaldehyde due to drinking.
Finally, Begleiter and other theorists have proposed that alcoholics have abnormal brain waves prior to ever having drunk or that drinking creates unusual brain activity for them Pollock et al.Social Learning Theory and Delinquency - Delinquency is made up of many theories, but the primary hypothesis that it consists of is the social learning theory.
JACQUES: (exuberantly) I present the source of homeland security reality as one dimension, ranging from objective to subjective.I describe the persistence of that reality as a second dimension, ranging from very stable to continuously changing.
For my analytical convenience, I can then define homeland security as four ideal types: 24 a rational reality, 25 a structural reality, 26 a group.
People and ideas systems As outlined by Andrew Roberts of Middlesex University, London. Introductory sketches of the ideas of theorists, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and the Society and Science History urbanagricultureinitiative.comped from a course document "Outline of the theorists we could cover" (February ), the web page was created offline before Published: Thu, 02 Aug Introduction.
The essay will look at historical subcultural theories and explanations which play a role in explaining youth offending behaviour. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
Breaking Open the Head: A Psychedelic Journey into the Heart of Contemporary Shamanism [Daniel Pinchbeck] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A dazzling work of personal travelogue and cultural criticism that ranges from the primitive to the postmodern in a quest for the promise and meaning of the psychedelic experience. While psychedelics of all sorts are demonized in . Theories of Crime and Delinquency (chapters ) Two Major Types of Theories of Crime • Kinds of people theories – “What makes a person turn to crime" or "why did Billy kill his mother" – Involves motives, situational factors, subjective feelings, etc. • Kinds of environment theories – “Why is crime higher in the inner cities?". Philosophy of Religion. Philosophy of religion is the philosophical study of the meaning and nature of religion. It includes the analyses of religious concepts, beliefs, terms, arguments, and practices of religious adherents.
The Theory Of Social Learning Theory - The paper aims to critically evaluate and understand key concepts and theories in regard to moral development throughout life.