Home Page Ararat, the Cradle of Civilization? The Sumerians, an ancient peoples and one of the first civilizations in the world called Ararat, Arrata.
Guisepi Introduction Like Sumer, Egypt, and other early civilizations in the Middle East, civilizations first developed in East and South Asia in the vicinity of great river systems. When irrigated by the massive spring floods of the Yellow River, the rich soil of the North China plain proved a superb basis for what has been the largest and most enduring civilization in human history.
Civilization first developed in the Indus River valley in present-day Pakistan in the middle of the 3d millennium B. But like Sumer and its successor civilizations in the Middle East, Harappan civilization was unable to survive natural catastrophes and nomadic invasions.
In contrast to the civilization of the Shang rulers in China around B.
Until the midth century it was "lost" or forgotten, even by the peoples who lived in the vicinity of its sand-covered ruins. Important elements of Harappan society were transmitted to later civilizations in the Indian subcontinent.
But unlike the Shang kingdom, Harappa did not survive to be the core and geographical center from which a unified and continuous civilization developed like that found in China. The difference in the fate of these two great civilizations provides one of the key questions in dealing with the history of civilized societies: What factors permitted some civilizations to endure for millennia while others rose and fell within a few centuries?
Between about and B. It took these unruly, warlike peoples many centuries to build a civilization that rivaled that of the Harappans.
The Aryans concentrated on assaulting Harappan settlements and different Aryan tribal groups. As peoples who depended primarily on great herds of cattle to provide their subsistence, they had little use for the great irrigation works and advanced agricultural technology of the Indus valley peoples.
Though they conserved some Harappan beliefs and symbols, the Aryan invaders did little to restore or replace the great cities and engineering systems of the peoples they had supplanted.
Eventually, however, many of the Aryan groups began to settle down, and increasingly they relied on farming to support their communities. By about B. In the following centuries, strong warrior leaders built tribunal units into larger kingdoms.
The emergence of priestly and warrior elites signaled the beginning of a new pattern of civilization in South Asia. By the 6th century B. The early development of civilization in China combined the successive phases of advancement of Mesopotamian history with the continuity of Egyptian civilization.
Civilization in China coalesced around B. Chinese civilization emerged gradually out of Neolithic farming and potterymaking cultures that had long been present in the Yellow River region of East Asia.
The establishment of the Shang kingdom at this point in time gave political expression to a combination of civilizing trends. The appearance of a distinctive and increasingly specialized elite supported by the peasant majority of the Chinese people, the growth of towns and the first cities, the spread of trade, and the formulation of a written language all indicated that a major civilization was emerging in China.
Though the political dominance of the Shang came to an end in under the new royal house of the Zhou, civilized development in China was enriched and extended as the Chinese people migrated east and south from their original Yellow River heartland.
By the end of the Zhou era, which would last officially until B. Some of those elements have persisted to the present day. As the rapidly running mountain streams reached the plains of the Indus valley, they branched out into seven great rivers, of which five remain today.
These rivers in turn converge midway down the valley to form the Indus River, which runs for hundreds of miles to the southwest and empties into the Arabian Sea.Mar 29, · Another civilization which influenced the Hittites was the Hurrian people, who lived throughout the Middle East during the second millennium B.C.
It’s probable that they were around even earlier than that: Personal and place names written in the Hurrian language were found in Mesopotamian records dating back to the third millennium B.C. Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent.
The nuclear dates of the civilization appear to be about – bce, though the southern sites may have lasted later into the 2nd millennium bce. A history of the Ancient Indus River Valley Civilizations. Topics. The Indus Valley, Character and Significance. Map Of Indus Valley.
Uruk was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the ancient dry former channel of the Euphrates River, some 30 km east of modern As-Samawah, Al-Muthanna, Iraq.
The Mayan Civilization - It was a fantastic place to live,however, all of the achievements, like better education, that made the civilization so also had a part in its downfall.
ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS. the requirements and patterns to development. Edited By: Robert Guisepi. The Ancient City of Jericho The term civilization basically means the level of development at which people live together peacefully in communities.