Haemophilus influenzae Listeria monocytogenes On average, bacterial meningitis caused about 4, cases and deaths in the United States each year between and
Excerpt from Research Paper: Introduction Meningitis infects the meninges, the delicate membranes that house the spinal cord and the brain. It is a rare infection that can affect adults and children alike. The disease manifests in several types such as through viral, bacterial and fungal varieties.
Bacterial meningitis is the most dangerous and infectious variety. It is a life threatening disease. It infects people in physical contact.
Incidentally, viral meningitis is not as severe as most of the patients that develop the disease recover on their own without seeking treatment Wang et al. Fungal meningitis is the rarest form. It occurs in people whose immune system has been compromised.
Etiology Bacterial meningitis is caused by bacteria that enters the body and relocates to the brain and spinal cord or when bacteria invade the meninges.
The point of entry can be a skull fracture, ear or sinus infection, of surgery.
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Bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis include Streptococcus pneumonia, the most common cause of bacterial meningitis Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus infleunzae, and Listeria monocytogenes people who have weakened immune systems are most susceptible.
Bacterial meningitis is commonly caused by Infectious disease meningitis essay pneumonia in America and other countries across the globe. The common serotypes that lead to bacterial meningitis include 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 19, 18C, and Pneumococcal strain 19A is the most notable serotype that causes the disease and can attack both children and adults Kaplan et al.
Viral meningitis is caused by enteroviruses which are common in late summer and early fall. Viral meningitis is however mild and clears without medication.
Essay about Smallpox: Infectious Disease and Social Health. urbanagricultureinitiative.comll Small Pox Infectious diseases are diseases transmitted only by a specific kind of contact. Some infectious diseases are Ebola, Smallpox, Black Death and Swine Flu. The smallpox is very contagious and is not related to . Infectious Disease Essay Examples. 9 total results. An analysis of mononucleosis an infectious disease of humans. words. 1 page. The Hazards of the Infectious Diseases in Developing Countries to the American People. 1, words. 3 pages. A Research on Anthrax. 1, words. 3 pages. Vascular access and antithrombotic therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Chronic meningitis on the other hand is caused by organisms that are slow-growing e. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and fungi. Fungal meningitis is uncommon with only Cryptococcal meningitis being the common form and it affects persons with immune deficiencies e.
Other causes of meningitis are noninfectious and include drug allergies, chemical reactions, inflammatory diseases, and some types of cancer. Pathogenesis The entry point for pathogens that cause meningitis is the nasopharynx or ears into the bloodstream.
They pass through the endothelial cells to enter the subarachnoid space, and then penetrate the porous capillaries of choroid plexus. They may be carried by granulocytes too.
Provision of sufficient nutrients for the thriving of bacteria is one of the reasons why the Cerebrospinal fluid CSF is an ideal medium for infection.
It also houses a couple of phagocytic cells. The antibodies are also low McGill et al. At first there is uninhibited multiplication of bacteria. At this point the bacteria can be seen and identified through cultures, smears or through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of antigens prior to inflammation.
Bacteria carry the potential to destroy the blood capillaries and the brain directly. The toxins generated by bacteria cause neuronal apoptosis.
The endotoxin produced by bacteria triggers clotting which in turn leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation. This state leads to more severe injury because of the inflammatory reaction to bacteria. The innate immune system of the brain found in the choroid.
Actually, if neutrophytes increase in number, they can damage brain nerves, vessels and tissue. Cerebral infarcts are caused by Vasculitis and clotting. This brain damage during attack by meningitis is as a result of bacterial action in part and also the reaction to bacteria by the immune response system.
The brain is sufficiently wired to deal with inflammation. However, in some situations, the unbalanced defense responses can be injurious.Appropriate antibiotic treatment of most common types of bacterial meningitis should reduce the risk of dying from meningitis to below 15%, although the risk is higher among the elderly.
The best thing to do is go to a hospital and speak to a infectious disease specialist. Learning Objectives. This is an intermediate level course. After taking this course, mental health professionals will be able to: List and discuss four medical causes of mental disorders.
There are three main types of the meningitis infection: bacterial (both infectious and non-infectious), viral, and fungal/environmental (including parasitic). Meningitis may develop in response to a number of causes, usually bacteria or viruses, but can also be caused by physical injury, cancer or certain drugs.
Disease and Pathology Lyme disease, or lyme borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease transmitted by ticks. Lyme disease is considered an emerging infectious disease because it’s incidence has increased over the past 20 years, and it was not identified until in the United States (CITE).
This paper provides a holistic literature review of climate change and variability in Ghana by examining the impact and projections of climate change and variability in various sectors (agricultural, health and energy) and its implication on ecology, land use, poverty and welfare.
The findings suggest that there is a projected high temperature . Infectious Disease Essay Examples. 9 total results. An analysis of mononucleosis an infectious disease of humans.
words. 1 page. The Hazards of the Infectious Diseases in Developing Countries to the American People.
1, words. 3 pages. A Research on Anthrax. 1, words. 3 pages.