The rise and fall of the Roman and Chinese empires juxtaposed. The Roman and Chinese had much similarities but also many differences.
Types and geographical distribution[ edit ] Aquaculture and Salt Production Bohai Bay Seen from space Traditional Chinese writers and modern scholars agree that there are at least five types of salt found in different regions of what is now China: Sea salt simplified Chinese: The most important source.
In earliest times, coastal and island salterns used earthen and then iron boiling pans to reduce sea water to salt. By the 3rd century BCE, workers filtered sea water through flat beds of ashes or sand into pits to produce a brine which could be boiled or evaporated by the sun.
Over the course of the 20th century, industrial evaporators replaced these coastal salterns. Deep borehole drilling technology tapped subterranean salt pools, sometimes to the depth of half a mile, which also produced the natural gas used to boil it.
People can freely obtain it by scraping it off without refining it. More than a dozen sites on the southwest coast of the Bohai Bay show that the Dawenkou culture was already producing salt from underground brine more than 6, years ago during the Neolithic.
These pottery jars may have served as "standard units of measurement in the trade and distribution of salt".
There are reliable reports of the use of iron salt pans in the 5th century BCE. He ordered first that the pools be made deeper, then that wells be dug, and eventually that narrower and more efficient shafts be sunk. By the end of the 2nd century CE, workers had devised a system of leather valves and bamboo pipes which drew up both brine and natural gas, which they burned to boil the brine the technology they developed for the bamboo piping was eventually applied to household plumbing.
The Guanzia Han dynasty compilation of texts attributed to Imperial administration in han china and 4th century BCE, includes a perhaps apocryphal discussion between the philosopher Guan Zhong and Duke Huan of the State of Qi on a proposed salt monopoly.
The dialogue raised both practical questions about the effectiveness of taxes and moral questions about the nature of government. Guan Zhong argued that direct taxes created resentment among the people, but extolled indirect taxes, such as those on salt and iron: If you were going to issue an order, "I am going to collect head money upon all of you people, both adults and children," they would certainly remonstrate loudly and angrily against you.
However, if you take firm control over the policy on salt, the people cannot manage to dodge it even though you are going to take a profit of one hundred times over. However, their profits rivaled the central government's own treasury in size and also took salt workers off the tax rolls.
The central government took notice. In BCE, Emperor Wu of Han cast about for ways to finance his expansionist policies, and at the urging of his Legalist advisors, decreed salt and iron to be state monopolies. Fifty or so foundries were established, each using hundreds or even thousands of convict or conscript laborers.
Confucian moralists replied that a minimalist government was best and argued that for the state to make a profit was to steal from the people and to undermine morality: Salt commission In the 6th and 7th centuries, the Tang government attempted to control markets and the economy directly, but after a period of success, the expense of suppressing the Anshi Rebellion in the s drained the treasury at just the time as the government's loss of local control made it difficult to collect the land tax and other direct taxes.
Officials looked for ways to raise revenues which did not depend on direct control of production and retail sales. Chancellor Liu Yan had already proved his worth by using impressed labor to dredge the long silted-over canal connecting the Huai and Yellow rivers; this project lowered transport costs, relieved food shortages, and increased tax revenues with little government investment.
The Huai river ran through Northern Jiangsu, the location of coastal salt marshes which were the major source of salt. Liu realized that if the government could control these areas, it could sell the salt at a monopoly price to merchants, who would pass the price difference on to their customers.
This monopoly price was an indirect tax which was reliably collected in advance without having to control the areas where the salt was consumed. Liu created a Salt and Iron Commission whose revenues were particularly important since the central government had lost control of the provinces.
Even better, the revenue originated in the south, where it could be safely used to buy grain to ship to the capital, Chang'anby river and canal. In the last century of Tang rule, salt provided more than half of the government's annual revenue and prolonged its life, for a government which managed to control the salt production areas, the canal, and the capital was hard to dislodge.
The basic principles of "official supervision, merchant transportation" established at this time lasted fundamentally unchanged until the 20th century.
Huang Chaofor instance, the late Tang rebel, was a failed exam candidate who became a salt merchant. In order to finance these goals, Wang relied on methods like expanding the state's monopoly on salt.
Wang's allies had his rival, the poet and official Su Shiarrested for "defaming the emperor. An old man of seventy, sickle at his waist, Feels guilty the spring mountain bamboo and bracken are sweet.
It's not that the music of Shao has made him lose his sense of taste, But just that he's eaten his food for three months without salt.Yet the Han adopted much of the Qin bureaucratic system and penal codes while affirming the Confucian idea of the moral and cultural foundations of state power.
The Han Dynasty. The Han dynasty became China’s formative empire, extending Han rule in all directions. Han imperial structures, including religion, literature, and law, were quite different from what evolved out of them, but Lewis convincingly argues that later societies cannot be understood without understanding this classical urbanagricultureinitiative.coms: The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty China: A Comparison Aim • How did the Roman Empire compare to the Han Dynasty in China?
Do Now (U5D1) December 19, • Write your answer on an index card • Do you think Rome was unique in terms of power, culture, and influence in .
7 Analyze similarities and differences in techniques of imperial administration in Han China and Imperial Rome (31BCE) Han China and Imperial Rome were similar in their military techniques, their politics, and their economy and were different in their trade locations and religion%(3).
•The imperial administration of Han China and Imperial Rome were similar because they were both headed by an emperor.
However, they differed in their treatment of the emperor. In Han China a ruler’s decisions, if detrimental to society, could be questioned.
While in Rome, what the emperor decreed could not be questioned. example by discussing changing methods of imperial administration as the empires began to decline because of epidemic diseases, environmental damage, and external problems.