The article then went on to list a number of Russian weapons systems which were clearly superior to their US counterparts when those even existed. The USA definitely has the quantitative advantage, but in terms of quality and training, Russia is way ahead. So what is going on here?
Those five are the duties of universal obligation. Knowledge, magnanimity, and energy, these three, are the virtues universally binding. And the means by which they carry the duties into practice is singleness. Some are born with the knowledge of those duties; some know them by study; and some acquire the knowledge after a painful feeling of their ignorance.
But the knowledge being possessed, it comes to the same thing. Some practice them with a natural ease; some from a desire for their advantages; and some by strenuous effort.
But the achievement being made, it comes to the same thing. Confucius If a Western person is not aware of the very different relational presumptions built into Confucian ideas of reciprocal duty, he or she is likely to presume that the independent pursuit of needs and wants is central to involvement in such relationships.
Robert Westwood does this when he sums up the Confucian position from a Western perspective. He assumes that all individuals are 'free actors' who 'lose freedom' when they are required to accept super-ordinate or subordinate hierarchical status.
It is this that allows him to speak about relative 'power' in hierarchical, interdependent relationships: Challenges to authority and the 'natural' order are not countenanced. This is encapsulated in the Confucian precepts of the so-called 'Five Cardinal Relationships' or wu lun, which delineate a hierarchical power structure over key societal relationships.
The wu lun are dyadic sets of unequal, mostly hierarchical relationships between emperor - minister, father - son, husband - wife, older brother - younger brother, friend - friend. Although the power structure is differentiated and unequal except for the lattermutual obligations and reciprocities are inherent in the relationships.
The person in the dominant position expects and receives obedience, deference and compliance, but in return should respect the dignity of the lower party and provide appropriate care and concern. Chinese often view themselves interdependent with the surrounding social context, and it is the 'self in relation to other' that becomes the focal individual experience.
This view of an interdependent self is in sharp contrast to the Western view of an independent self. The latter sees each human being as an independent, self-contained, autonomous entity who a comprises a unique configuration of internal attributes e.
This divergent view of self has implications for a variety of basic psychological processes e. It is very easy for a researcher or commentator to apply his or her own understandings of the nature of relationships to those observed in other communities.
Westwood does this when he assumes that hierarchical relationships must involve dominance and subservience, relative power and powerlessness. These are features of relationships between individuals who define themselves as 'free actors'. They see relationships of dependence in terms of costs and benefits and degrees of loss of independence The independent self is quintessentially Western.
The interdependent self, in one guise or another, is found in communities where individuals know who they are through the forms of relationship they recognize between themselves and other members of the community.
They perceive rights and responsibilities as qualities of the interactants rather than inhering in the 'objects' of interaction as rules of acquisition. In such communities the rights and obligations of individuals in exchange relationships remain with the interactants rather than being attached to the objects of exchange.
So, the other party in an exchange is the focus, rather than the needs and wants of the interactants.
In one case, the process of exchange or interaction tends to emphasize the separate identities and, therefore, motivations of the exchangers leading to a stress on independence.
In the other, it tends to emphasize their relatedness and reciprocal responsibilities stressing interdependence.In , Thomas Friedman wrote a great book entitled, The World is Flat - a brief history of the twenty-first century.
At only five years into the 21st century, it might have seemed a bit premature. At only five years into the 21st century, it might have seemed a bit premature.
WONDERING WHAT’S WRONG WITH OUR WORLD? DARE YOU TO READ THIS BOOK! The website you are currently visiting is a direct outgrowth of the writing in the book The Storm Before the Calm, in which you have been invited to co-author a New Cultural Story for Humanity as part of a global urbanagricultureinitiative.com book is now posted here.
How big does the climate engineering elephant in the room need to be before it can no longer be hidden in plain site?
How much more historical proof do we need of the ongoing climate engineering/weather warfare before the denial of the masses crumbles? When will populations around the globe bring to. Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
About three and a half years ago, I made a discovery. And this discovery profoundly changed my view on how I thought the world worked, and it even profoundly changed the way in which I operate in it. Sep 17, · The 4 skills you need to become a global leader. 06 Jan Peter Vanham Media Lead, US and Industries, World Economic Forum. Latest Articles. Author: Peter Vanham is Media Lead, US and Industries, and a Global Leadership Fellow at the World Economic Forum. Nobel Prize Winning Physicist Dr. Ivar Giaever: 'Global warming is a non-problem' 'I say this to Obama: Excuse me, Mr. President, but you're wrong.
Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities.
In today’s innovation-driven economy, understanding how to generate great ideas is an urgent managerial priority. And that calls for major doses of creativity. Definition of global leadership Global organisations face increased challenges and competition so success demands the best performance that corporate top managers can produce.
When these executives work across multiple .