It was first used in to describe a property of timber, and to explain why some types of wood were able to accommodate sudden and severe loads without breaking.
Literature Cited ABSTRACT The purpose of this essay is to define and refine the concepts of stability and resilience and to demonstrate their value in understanding the behavior of exploited systems.
Some ecological systems display several possible stable states. They may also show a hysteresis effect in which, even after a long time, the state of the system may be partly determined by its history.
The concept of resilience depends upon our objectives, the types of disturbances that we anticipate, control measures that are available, and the time scale of interest. As humans have imposed greater and greater demands upon natural systems, Arrow et Defining resilience cs holling essay.
The purpose of this exposition is to review some theoretical concepts and present Defining resilience cs holling essay examples to illustrate the variety of possible behaviors that natural systems may display under exploitation.
The concepts stem from our informal understanding of the ideas of stability, sustainability, and resilience, but clarity requires a more detailed classification of behaviors. This implies that the qualitative behavior of each example is typical of a whole class of systems.
Equilibrium A mechanical system is at equilibrium if the forces acting on it are in balance. For example, when a body floats, the force of gravity is balanced by the buoyant force due to displacement of the liquid.
The concept usually refers to steady flows of energy and materials, rather than to a system whose components do not change. Resilience and stability We are interested in characterizing natural systems that are resilient, i.
This is related to the idea of stability. The informal concept of stability refers to the tendency of a system to return to a position of equilibrium when disturbed.
If a weight is added suddenly to a raft floating on water, the usual response is for the weighted raft to oscillate, but the oscillations gradually decrease in amplitude as the energy of the oscillations is dissipated in waves and, eventually, in heat. The weighted raft will come to rest in a different position than the unweighted raft, but we think of the new configuration as essentially the same as the old one.
The system is stable. If we gradually increase the weight on the raft, eventually the configuration will change. If the weight is hung below the raft, the raft will sink deeper and deeper into the water as more and more displacement is required to balance the higher gravitational force.
Eventually, the buoyant force cannot balance the gravitational force and the whole configuration sinks: On the other hand, if the weight is placed on top of the raft, the raft may flip over suddenly and lose the weight and its other contents long before the point at which the system, as a whole, would sink.
This sudden loss of stability may be more dangerous than the gradual sinking, because there may be little warning or opportunity to prepare for it. We may think of the raft system as losing its resilience as more weight is placed on it.
As we demand more and more of the products of natural systems, and we load them with more and more of our waste products, are we likely to experience a gradual loss of stability or a sudden one?
In order to clarify such questions, we must refine our terminology. To decide whether a system is stable or not, we must first specify what we mean by a change in configuration or loss of integrity. We must also specify the types and quantities of disturbances that may affect the system. Suppose that a fixed weight is placed on top of an occupied raft.
If the occupants of the raft move about, the raft may float at a slightly different angle, but if they move too far or all at once, the raft may tip.
The range of possible movements of the occupants that do not lead to tipping is called the domain of stability, or domain of attraction, of the upright state. If the amount of the fixed weight is gradually increased, the balance becomes more precarious and, hence, the domain of attraction will shrink.
Eventually, the weight becomes large enough so that there is no domain of attraction at all, and the raft will flip over no matter what its occupants do.
The preceding example makes a distinction between the weight loading the raft and the positions of the occupants. If the amount of the weight changes very slowly or not at all, we may think of the "system" as consisting of the raft and weight. The occupants change position relatively quickly, and these changes may be thought of as disturbances of the system.
On the other hand, we may adopt a more comprehensive point of view, seeing the raft, the weight, and the occupants as a single system. If the occupants organize themselves to anticipate and correct for external disturbances, then the system may be able to maintain its integrity long enough for them to achieve their objectives.
Another possible response to disturbance might be to restructure the raft itself. If it were constructed of several loosely coupled subunits, then excessive weighting or a strong disturbance might flip one part of the system, but leave the rest intact. Such a structure might not require as much vigilance to maintain as the single raft, and it might be able to withstand a greater variety of external disturbances.We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.
‘The measurement of resilience is the magnitude of disturbance that can be absorbed or accommodated before the system changes its structure by changing the variables and processes that control system behavior’ (p ) Holling and Meffe (). However, because of different interpretations of the above definition and different conceptions of what resilience is, defining resilience and exactly what that encompasses is still, to date, a difficult task.
Some variations say resilience is the absence of symptoms following exposure to trauma while. ecological resilience (Holling, ; ).
Since the pioneering work of Holling, other versions with respect to the concept of resilience have been put forward by natural scientists. Among them, we can find the definition proposed by Pimm ().
According to Pimm, resilience is . There is agreement in the literature that Crawford (Buzz) Holling first introduced the concept of resilience to ecology and the environment. He promoted the use of systems theory and modelling, and is credited with the introduction of ecological economics, the adaptive cycle.
the definition of “resilience”, as well as to analyze components in the context of the economic dimension, which, on the one hand, allowed seeing the diversity of the processes for economic resilience, and on the other.