Dedicated to the military history and civilization of the Eastern Roman Empire to "Time in its irresistible and ceaseless flow carries along on its flood all created things and drowns them in the depths of obscurity. The Arabs invading the Roman Empire might have looked much like this warrior. No one in Constantinople had any idea that a fresh invasion from the southern deserts would happen in a matter of months.
The Abbassid capital was in Baghdad. Now considered the holiest city in Islam. Now considered the second holiest city in Islam after Mecca. The relationship between sultans and caliphs in Islam can be compared to the relationship between popes and emperors in Catholicism during the Mifdle Ages.
The Ummayyids located their capital in Damascus. At first, the Byzantine Empire was an ally of the West, although later it became an adversary. In both cases, the Byzantine Empire stood as a bulwark against Eastern expansion - first Persian and later Moslem.
It was centered around the eastern end of the Mediterraneanand located between the Nile Valley, the southern shore of the Black Sea, and inland as far as Mesopotamia.
The principal city of the Byzantine Empire was the former eastern capital, Constantinople. The Byzantine Empire was surrounded by enemies. It was due west of the powerful Persian empire that revived in Parthia following the Roman retreat.
The Byzantine Empire also faced a challenge from European barbarians in the West. The central Asian nomads that challenged the Western Roman Empire also offered a constant threat. Finally, because the Byzantine Empire was located between Black and Mediterranean Seas, it was a major naval power.
The basic concern of emperors in both Rome and Constantinople was how to maintain the empire. Once Rome was sacked in the fifth century AD, their concern switched to "how to reconstruct the empire. The answers to both problems required men, wealth and imperial unity.
In the Byzantine Empire, the Christian Church became a tool for solving both problems. The Church controlled great wealth through the system of tithes, which required each Christian to donate one tenth of his earnings to the Church to pay for good works. Later, Christianity also provided a sense of unity of purpose for recolonizing the western Roman Empire in the name of Christianity.
Especially during the Crusades, Christian leaders were able to mobilize large armies in defense of their religion. Spiritual and political physical power: Thus speak unto the Levites, and say unto them, When ye take of the children of Israel the tithes which I have given you from them for your inheritance, then ye shall offer up an heave offering of it for the LORD, even a tenth part of the tithe.
Theological dispute over leadership: However, as Christianity spread among the barbarians who settled in Europe, rivalry developed between the two imperial cities of Rome and Constantinople. The Roman bishops claimed leadership over Christianity based on the Gospel verse in which Jesus tells Peter first bishop of Rome that you are the rock on which I will build my church Matthew Byzantine Emperors based their claims for leadership on the succession of leadership within the Christian Roman Empire.
Practical dispute over leadership: The Byzantine Emperor controlled the largest population of Christians, access to Christian holy sites, and the wealthiest part of the empire. Also, by the 4th-5th centuries, the Roman bishops directed the most dynamic part of the Christian world--barbarian Europe--where missionary activity attracted the most energetic Christians and donations for the good work of converting barbarians.
The Byzantine Emperor imposed an imperial bureaucracy on the practice of Christianity by using bishops as inspectors and by calling conferences to codify doctrine. The first world council of Christianity was held at Nicaea AD. These became known as the five Holy Sees.
The Controversy began under Emperor Leo the Isaurian, the emperor who defended Constantinople against the Arabs in Jun 13, · Extra History S6 • E1 Byzantine Empire: Justinian and Theodora - I: From Swineherd to Emperor - Extra History - Duration: Extra Credits 1,, views EXPANSION OF ISLAM.
The expansion of Islam: Muslim forces had quick and extensive military success. In , Damascus fell to Arabs, and in , Jerusalem fell. In , the Byzantine fortress of Babylon (Cairo) fell, and in , Alexandria fell under Muslim control.
May 15, · Battle of Ajnadayn - Islam vs Christianity Three Arab warriors with rifles standing and sitting in the desert during the Arab Revolt The invading Arabs the Romans faced might have looked much like these soldiers. Byzantine art is divided into four distinct periods, with strong influence from its Christian religion and the Byzantines' existing appreciation of traditional Roman art.
Byzantine's Influence on Islamic Art.
The Differences & Similarities Between the Byzantine & Islamic Empires In every meaningful way, the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic Empire were fundamentally different. On the most surface level, there is the obvious distinction between the dominant religions of the two groups.
There were many differences and similarities between the rise of the Islamic and Byzantine Empires. Both of these empires rise to power was greatly influenced by military force.
The Byzantine Empire had both a strong navy and military, while the Islamic Empire had the Rashidun Army. Another key similarity in the rising of the two [ ].